Multivariate statistics to investigate metal contamination in surface soil


YAY O. D. , Alagha O., TUNCEL S. G.

JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, vol.86, no.4, pp.581-594, 2008 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 86 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.12.032
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
  • Page Numbers: pp.581-594
  • Keywords: urban soil pollution, metal deposition, atmospheric aerosols, factor analysis, HEAVY-METAL, TRACE-ELEMENTS, SOURCE APPORTIONMENT, POLLUTION, POLLUTANTS, LEAD, AREA, NORTHERN, CADMIUM, EXAMPLE

Abstract

The modification of soil composition in the urbanized area of Ankara due to wet-dry deposition and pollution-derived particles from the atmosphere is investigated by analyzing 120 surface soil samples, collected from the urbanized area and its un-urbanized surrounding, for major, minor and trace elements. Concentrations of elements from human activity (e.g. Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ca) in the urbanized area were higher than their corresponding concentrations in global average soil and soil in un-urbanized areas outside the urbanized area. Metal contents in soil were very high in densely populated districts and around some industrial facilities. The only exception was Ph distribution, which was more dispersed, due to the nature of motor vehicle emissions. Alteration of the Cd, Zn, Cu and Cr content of soil was confined to the inhabited and industrial areas, whereas enrichment factors of these elements were close to unity in the remaining study area. Factor analysis identified two polluted soil factor associations. One factor includes elements, such as Zn and Cd, which had high factor scores in inhabited areas and the other factor (high loading of Pb) represents soil polluted by motor vehicle emissions. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.