The Effects of Citric Acid Crosslinking on Fabrication and Characterization of Gelatin/Curcumin-Based Electrospun Antioxidant Nanofibers

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Hasan R., ŞÜMNÜ S. G., ŞAHİN S., ÖZ E., ÖZ F.

ANTIOXIDANTS, vol.12, no.7, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/antiox12071387
  • Journal Name: ANTIOXIDANTS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, Chemical Abstracts Core, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: crosslinking, curcumin, electrospinning, nanofibers, phenolics, sustainability
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Nanofibers, produced through the novel method of electrospinning, have a high ratio of surface area to volume, which allows them to have different optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties than macroscale materials. In this study, it was aimed to produce nanofibers with gelatin and curcumin. The effects of gelatin concentration and crosslinking with citric acid on the characteristics of electrospun nanofibers were studied. Gelatin film containing neither citric acid nor curcumin was used as control. Solutions were evaluated by solution conductivity, color analysis, and rheological properties. Obtained nanofibers were characterized by morphological analysis (SEM), antioxidant activity (AA), thermal properties (TGA, XRD, DSC), water vapor permeability (WVP), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. It was found that the functional groups of gelatin were not changed significantly but some degree of crosslinking was seen, as indicated by the changes in AA, crystallinity, etc. Improvement in antioxidant activities was seen, which was the highest for gelatin and curcumin films (32%). The highest melting temperature (78 & DEG;C) and WVP (2.365 x 10(-10) gm(-1) s(-1) Pa-1) was seen for gelatin and curcumin films crosslinked with 0.5% citric acid. Gelatin with curcumin films crosslinked with 1% citric acid showed the lowest crystallinity (1.56%). It was concluded that even though citric acid might not prove to be a stable crosslinking agent for the protein (gelatin), it contributed to the antioxidant nature of the films, along with curcumin. These films are promising candidates to be applied on cut fruits, to reduce water loss and oxidation and hence extend their shelf lives.