As an initial part of a revisional study based on the genus Salvia L. (Lamiaceae), extensive field studies, herbarium and literature surveys, and multivariate analysis have been conducted on the basis of the Salvia euphratica sensu lato (S. cerino-pruinosa, S. euphratica, S. leiocalycina, and S. pseudeuphratica) and its closely related species (S. kronenburgii and S. sericeo-tomentosa) in order to understand their taxonomic status. For the multivariate analysis, 35 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) representing 24 populations of the species were investigated and scored on the basis of 25 character states by means of MVSP software. Principle coordinate analysis (PCO) utilizing the Gower coefficient on standardized data was conducted on the specimens to see their distribution as 3-dimensional plots. In the Flora of Turkey, S. euphratica, S. kronenburgii, and S. sericeo-tomentosa were evaluated as separate species. On the other hand, S. cerino-pruinosa and S. pseudeuphratica were regarded as synonyms of S. euphratica. As a result of the present study, S. cerino-pruinosa and S. pseudeuphratica are accepted as distinct species. Turkish endemic S. cerino-pruinosa and its closest relative Iranian endemic S. kermanshahensis are also discussed in terms of their morphological and taxonomical relationships. Literature surveys and herbarium studies indicated that S. pseudeuphratica has been rediscovered once again since it was first collected 117 years ago. A diagnostic key for the species studied is given and their diagnostic morphological characters are discussed. Moreover, their amended and expanded descriptions, distributions, phenology, ecology, and photographs are provided.