A study has been undertaken to evaluate the similarities and differences between the steel building design specifications used in the United States and Europe. Expressions for nominal strength presented in the AISC-360 Specification and the Eurocode 3 Specification were compared for fundamental limit states. In particular, rules for cross-section classification, tension members, compression members, I-shaped members subjected to flexure, 1-shaped members subjected to shear, and fasteners were studied. Results of the investigation revealed that, in general, both specifications provide nominal capacities that are close to each other. Significant differences were reported for some limit states such as flexure in I-shaped members with non-compact flanges, shear and lateral torsional buckling in I-shaped members, and bearing strength at bolt holes. In this paper, the details of the comparative study are presented along with observations that are useful for practicing engineers.