Individualism and collectivism in a model and scale of balanced differentiation and integration

Imamoglu E.

JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, vol.132, no.1, pp.95-105, 1998 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 132 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 1998
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00223989809599268
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.95-105


To discern some key features of individualistic and collectivistic human model conceptualizations within a parsimonious framework, the author proposed a model based on the notion that balancing the basic orientations for self-developmental differentiation (individuation) and interrelational integration (interrelatedness) promotes optimal development. The Balanced Differentiation and Integration Scale (BDIS) and the Balanced Orientation Scale (BOS), which was developed as a validity check for the BDIS, were used to empirically justify the proposed model. The BDIS and BOS were administered to 117 Turkish university students. For the BDIS, the results of 1st-order factor analysis yielded 6 factors that were then reduced to two 2nd-order factors: (a) Self-Developmental Orientation, with differentiative and integrative poles of individuation and normative patterning, respectively; and (b) Interrelational Orientation, with differentiative and integrative poles of separatedness and interrelatedness, respectively. The combinations of these two 2nd-order factors yielded 4 personality types. The results provide support for the validity and reliability of the BDIS and for the assertion that differentiation and integration of the self are complementary processes.