Evaluation possibility of a low quality Turkish oil shale from Beypazari, Ankara as an alternative clean solid fuel by froth flotation technique was investigated. Oil shale sample was characterized with mineralogical analysis, XRD and FTIR spectrum studies for its mineral content and surface characteristics. The flotation behavior of the sample and extent of cleaning were determined with respect to non-ionizing and ionizing collectors of anionic and cationic types. The effects of collector dosages and pulp pH on the cleaning performance were investigated. XRD analysis showed that the majority of the inorganic matter was constituted by carbonates, montmorillonite, quartz and feldspar while the sample was poor in organic content. In the FTIR spectrum, strong adsorption bands due to oxygen rich carboxyl groups were observed while the characteristic bands of organic groups were in weak forms. The sample was characterized as a fulvic material with low organic content. Ash content and combustible recovery results showed that cleaning of Beypazari oil shale was a difficult process on accounts of the high inorganic content and fulvic character of the sample. The most effective cleaning was obtained with amine type collectors. With amines, ash could be reduced from 69.88% to 53.10% with 58.64% combustible recovery using 800 g/ton Armoflote 17 at natural pulp pH. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.