Optimisation of formulations and infrared-microwave combination baking conditions of chestnut-rice breads

Demirkesen I., Sumnu G., ŞAHİN S., Uysal N.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.46, no.9, pp.1809-1815, 2011 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02682.x
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1809-1815
  • Keywords: Chestnut flour, emulsifier, gluten-free bread, infrared, microwave, optimisation, response surface methodology, rice flour


The main objective of this study was to design gluten-free breads containing chestnut and rice flour and xanthan-guar gum blend to be baked in infrared-microwave combination oven. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise gluten-free bread formulations and processing conditions. Weight loss, firmness, specific volume and colour change of the breads were determined. Rice flour mixed with different proportions of chestnut flour and different emulsifier contents were used to prepare breads. The gluten-free formulations were baked using different upper halogen lamp powers, microwave powers and baking time which were varied from 40% to 80%, 30% to 70% and 9 to 17 min, respectively. Gluten-free breads and wheat breads baked in conventional oven were used for comparison. Breads containing 46.5% chestnut flour and 0.62% emulsifier and baked using 40% infrared and 30% microwave power for 9 min had statistically comparable quality with conventionally baked ones.