Adaptor proteins represent key signalling molecules involved in regulating immune responses. The host's innate immune system recognizes pathogens via various surface and intracellular receptors. Adaptor molecules are centrally involved in different receptor-mediated signalling pathways, acting as bridges between the receptors and other molecules. The presence of adaptors in major signalling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases has drawn attention toward the role of these proteins in such diseases. In this review, we summarize the importance and roles of different adaptor molecules in macrophage-mediated signalling in various chronic disease states. We highlight the mechanistic roles of adaptors and how they are involved in protein–protein interactions (PPI) via different domains to carry out signalling. Hence, we also provide insights into how targeting these adaptor proteins can be a good therapeutic strategy against various chronic inflammatory diseases.