Bladder cancer diagnosis from bladder wash by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a novel test for tumor recurrence

Gok S., Aydin O. Z. , Sural Y. S. , Zorlu F., Bayol U., Severcan F.

JOURNAL OF BIOPHOTONICS, vol.9, no.9, pp.967-975, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/jbio.201500322
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.967-975
  • Keywords: FTIR spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, bladder tumor, bladder wash, cluster analysis, FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY, ANIMAL-MODEL, IN-VITRO, CARCINOGENESIS, IDENTIFICATION, CARCINOMA, CYTOLOGY, TISSUES, LIVER
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study proposes Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a more sensitive, rapid, non-destructive and operator-independent analytical diagnostic method for bladder cancer recurrence from bladder wash than other routinely used urine cytology and cystoscopy methods. A total of 136 patients were recruited. FTIR spectroscopic experiments were carried out as a blind study, the classification results of which were then compared with those of cytology and cystoscopy. Firstly, 71 samples (n=37; bladder cancer and n=34; control) were studied with transmittance FTIR spectroscopy. After achieving successful differentiation of the groups, to develop a more rapid diagnostic tool and check the reproducibility of the results, the work was continued with different samples (n=65 as n= 44;bladder cancer and n=21; control), using the reflection mode (ATR) of FTIR spectroscopy by a different operator. The results revealed significant alterations in moleculer content in the cancer group. Based on the spectral differences, using transmittance FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics, the diseased group was successfully differentiated from the control. When only carcinoma group was taken into consideration a sensitivity value of 100% was achieved. Similar results were also obtained by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. This study shows the power of infrared spectroscopy in the diagnosis of bladder cancer.