The morphology and anatomy of Lathyrus cilicicus Hayek & Siehe (Fabaceae) were studied in order to understand the usefulness of these characteristics for systematics purposes. Lathyrus cilicicus is a Mediterranena element which grows in macchie, cornfields and cliffs in the central portion of the Mediterranean region of Turkey. An expanded and amended description of the species is given. In the study, anatomical features of the species are reported for the first time. Anatomical studies have been carried out on tranverse sections of roots, stems and leaves. Some anatomical characters such as the number of cortex and pith rays in the root, the number of collenchymatous cells in the stem and well developed sclerenchyma tissues in the leaf provide information of taxonomical significance.