A comprehensive review of sectorial contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions and progress in carbon capture and storage in Pakistan

Hussain M., Butt A. R. , Uzma F., Ahmed R., Islam T., Yousaf B.

GREENHOUSE GASES-SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.9, no.4, pp.617-636, 2019 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ghg.1890
  • Page Numbers: pp.617-636


The extreme amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) being released into the atmosphere has proved to be a globally challenging phenomenon that leads to changes in the climate and global warming. The amount of GHGs in the atmosphere has escalated immensely, with a substantial growth of 5.8% in 2010; a similar increase was observed in Pakistan as well. In Pakistan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions stand at 54% of total GHG emissions whereas methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic carbon contribute to emissions at 36%, 9%, 0.75% and 0.3%, respectively. One of the key reasons for climatic changes is GHG emission generation from human interventions and activities related to transportation, urban development, industrialization, energy sources, farming and agriculture, waste's improper management, land use and forestry. In 2011, Pakistan's entire GHG emissions were a whopping 347 Mt of CO2-eq, and by 2050, they are estimated to reach 4621 Mt CO2-eq. This review evaluates and assesses GHG emissions generating from various sectors in Pakistan, in a socio-scientific prospect that is caused by human activities and interventions in different economic sectors in Pakistan, endangering the environment across the country. Additionally, the review examines the current level of GHG emissions while accounting for China-Pakistan Economic Corridor-based emissions, abatement strategies including development of a state-of-the-art technique for carbon capture and storage/utilization technologies in Pakistan. (c) 2019 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.