In this paper, the direct liquefaction of Turkish Nigde-Ulukisla oil shale in noncatalytic and catalytic conditions was studied. The effects of pressure, tetralin/oil shale ratio, catalyst type and concentration, reaction time and temperature and oil shale/waste paper ratio on the process were investigated. It was found that tetralin/oil shale ratio had no considerable effect on the total and liquefaction products conversions under the noncatalytic conditions. Fe2O3, MoO3, Mo(CO)(6), Cr(CO)(6) and zeolite were used as catalysts in catalytic liquefaction. The highest total and liquefaction products conversions were obtained using MoO3 as catalyst at a concentration of 9% by weight. Reaction temperature of 400 degrees C and reaction time of 90 minutes were chosen according to obtained liquefaction results. Co-liquefaction experiments were performed using waste paper. Both the total and oil + gas conversions were increased to a considerable extent by the application of the co-liquefaction process. According to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, the liquid product from the liquefaction process of oil shale under catalytic conditions of experiment 22 consisted mainly of naphthalene and its derivatives and polycyclic hydrocarbon such as indene and its derivatives.