Shipborne samples collected from the Black Sea atmosphere were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and ion chromatography for approximately 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of most of the elements are found to be a factor of two higher in the western part of the Black Sea than corresponding concentrations in the eastern part. Main source regions for anthropogenic elements were in Europe. The WNW, WSW and SSW sectors together account for 70% of observed concentrations of elements. Principal component analysis showed a crustal, a marine and three anthropogenic factors. Two of the anthropogenic factors were the result of long-range transport of particles and the third indicated a local iron and steel industry. Atmospheric fluxes of elements to the Black Sea were calculated using observed concentrations. scavenging ratios and precipitation data and results were compared with riverine fluxes of elements. For crustal elements, riverine fluxes were found to be dominant, but for pollution-derived elements, atmospheric fluxes were comparable to riverine fluxes to the Black Sea.