This paper focuses on the influence of occupant behavior on the energy performance of dwellings in the Dutch context. The aim of this study was to identify, how the energy performance of a dwelling is sensitive to the behavior of its occupants. To this end, the study's methodology adopted the Monte Carlo method of analysis, one of the most commonly used means of analyzing the approximate distribution of possible results on the basis of probabilistic inputs. Data related to occupant behavior were generated from a survey of 313 households in The Netherlands. The Dutch reference row house was used to test the behavioral patterns, and the test results were determined through simulation-based modeling. The key input parameters were presence, heating control patterns (thermostat and radiators), and ventilation control patterns (windows, grilles, and mechanical ventilation), while minimum indoor resultant temperature and heating energy demand served as the key output parameters. The results showed that both heating energy demand and minimum indoor resultant temperature were most sensitive to the thermostat setting and most robust in relation to the radiator setting.