International joint ventures (IJVs) have become popular because of their importance as a strategic alternative in global competition. The measurement of the performance of IJVs has been an important research topic for a few decades, however there is no consensus on an appropriate definition and measurement of IJV performance. In this study, a model is proposed to assess IJV performance in construction. The validity of the proposed drivers and measures of performance is investigated and relationships between them are analyzed. The effects of interpartner fit/relations, structural IJV characteristics, host country factors, and project-related factors on IJV performance are examined through a questionnaire survey. IJV performance is defined by a four-dimensional construct that considers the performance of the project, the IJV partners, the IJV organization itself, and the perceptions of the IJV partners. The results point out the significance of the interpartner fit and the quality of partner relations for a successful IJV operation. The findings of the study also suggest that project-related factors have a moderate influence on IJV performance. In a properly designed IJV structure, partners with compatible skills, resources, and cultures are found to maintain good relations and are expected to achieve greater IJV success.