Weakly Supervised Object Localization with Multi-Fold Multiple Instance Learning

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Cinbiş R. G., Verbeek J., Schmid C.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE, vol.39, no.1, pp.189-203, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Object category localization is a challenging problem in computer vision. Standard supervised training requires bounding box annotations of object instances. This time-consuming annotation process is sidestepped in weakly supervised learning. In this case, the supervised information is restricted to binary labels that indicate the absence/presence of object instances in the image, without their locations. We follow a multiple-instance learning approach that iteratively trains the detector and infers the object locations in the positive training images. Our main contribution is a multi-fold multiple instance learning procedure, which prevents training from prematurely locking onto erroneous object locations. This procedure is particularly important when using high-dimensional representations, such as Fisher vectors and convolutional neural network features. We also propose a window refinement method, which improves the localization accuracy by incorporating an objectness prior. We present a detailed experimental evaluation using the PASCALVOC 2007 dataset, which verifies the effectiveness of our approach.