The conventional wisdom asserts that anti-Americanism in Turkey started as a result of the Cyprus Crisis in 1964. Yet the roots of anti-Americanism can be traced back to the 1945-1960 period, the rosy years of Turkish-American relations. In these years, some in Turkey criticized the government for granting political and economic concessions to the U.S. which were, they thought, reminiscent of the infamous capitulations of the Ottoman period. Furthermore, they argued, Turkey did not become an equal ally but was downgraded to a U.S. colony. Many critics voiced their concerns that Turkey's internal and external affairs were shaped in accordance not with Turkish but with American interests. Last, but not least, many accused America of cultural imperialism. These anti-American views were repeated over the succeeding years with slight alterations. Hence, this study will attempt to shed light not only on the 1960s' fiercer version of anti-Americanism but also on the current debates.