X-ray-induced production of gold nanoparticles on a SiO2/Si system and in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

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Karadas F., Ertas G., Ozkaraoglu E., Suzer S.

LANGMUIR, vol.21, no.1, pp.437-442, 2005 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/la0478604
  • Journal Name: LANGMUIR
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.437-442


Prolonged exposure to X-rays of HAuCl4 deposited from an aqueous solution onto a SiO2/Si substrate or into a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix induces reduction of the Au3+ ions to Au-0 and subsequent nucleation to gold nanoclusters as recorded by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corresponding major oxidation product is determined as chlorine {HAuCl4(ads) + X-rays --> Au(ads) + (3/2)Cl-2(ads) + HCl(ads)}, which is initially adsorbed onto the surface but eventually diffuses out of the system into the vacuum. The reduced gold atoms aggregate (three-dimensionally) into gold nanoclusters as evidenced by the variation in the binding energy during X-ray exposure, which starts as 1.3 eV but approaches a value that is 0.5 eV higher than that of the bulk gold. The disappearance of the oxidation product (Cl2p signal) and the growth of the nanoclusters (related to the measured binding energy difference between the Si2p of the oxide and Au4f of the reduced gold) exhibit first-order kinetics which is approximately 3 times slower than the reduction of Au3+, indicating that both of the former processes are diffusion controlled. Similarly, gold ions incorporated into PMMA can also be reduced and aggregated to gold nanoclusters using 254 nm deep UV irradiation in air evidenced by UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrocopy.