A study that involved DNA sequencing of COI-COII intergenic region of the mitochondrial DNA genome of Apis mellifera honey bees from Turkey was conducted to determine the population genetics and phylogeographic structure of this species from seven distinct areas of Turkey. From the 132 honey bees subjected to DNA sequencing, a total of 12 mitotypes of A. mellifera "C" lineage were observed, of which only one mitotype, C 13, had been reported previously. The most common mitotype, C12, accounted for 47% of the Apis mellifera "C" lineage samples and was found in 13 of the 22 sampled locations. This mitotype was also the basal ancestral mitotype based on TCS spanning tree analysis. The greatest amount of genetic diversity was observed in Bursa, where 4 mitotypes of the A. mellifera "C" lineage were unique to this location. Wright's F-statistics revealed that Artvin and Bursa were the most genetically distinct locations relative to the other sampled locations. Applying a molecular clock, Turkish A. mellifera "C" lineage mitotypes have been diverging for approximately 10,000 to 16,500 yr. based on phylogenetic analysis. In addition, two A. m. syriaca samples were observed from Hatay, Turkey. Phylogenetic analysis which included other A. mellifera subspecies confirms the subspecies relationships of A. mellifera "C" lineage, and A. m. syriaca. this study corroborates other studies that show Turkey to be a reservoir of genetically distinct populations of A. mellifera "C" lineage, which can be useful for developing genetic conservation strategies for A. mellifera.