Evaluating the health risks of potentially toxic elements through wheat consumption in multi-industrial metropolis of Faisalabad, Pakistan

Abbas Q., Yousaf B., Liu G., Zia-ur-Rehman M., Ali M. U., Munir M. A. M., ...More

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.24, no.34, pp.26646-26657, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 34
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-017-0311-9
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.26646-26657
  • Keywords: Potential toxic elements, Wheat consumption, Dietary exposure, Health risk assessment, Multi-industrial metropolis, HEAVY-METAL POLLUTION, AGRICULTURAL SOILS, WASTE-WATER, CONTAMINATED SOILS, DIETARY EXPOSURE, FOOD-CHAIN, CHINA, VEGETABLES, MULTIVARIATE, PLANTS
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: No


Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pollution is the fastest growing concern around the entire globe especially in developing countries. Rapid industrialization and urbanization are the dominant sources of anthropogenic soil-food chain contamination with PTEs. The intent of current study was to investigate the interactive levels of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil and their accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples collected from 96 sites including industrial, urban, and peri-urban areas of a leading multi-industrialized center (Faisalabad) of Pakistan. According to results obtained from present study, non-carcinogenic (HQ) and life-time carcinogenic risks (CR) of the PTEs to the local inhabitants were estimated following the risk assessment modals proposed by the US-EPA. With respect to estimated HQ for chronic non-carcinogenic risk of Mn, Ni, and Pb, higher potential hazards were observed as compared to Cu, Fe, and Zn. Meanwhile, the carcinogenic risk of Ni marginally exceeded the limit described by US-EPA for adults. Overall, the health risks of PTEs with the consumption of wheat were lower than the limits described by US-EPA except for Ni. However, continuous consumption of this PTEs contaminated food may result the potential buildup of poisonousness and various disorders in humans. Therefore, long-term monitoring and gastrointestinal bio-accessibility studies are requisite for the safety of humans under such conditions.