Pseudo-Random Quantization Based Two-Stage Detection in One-Bit Massive MIMO Systems

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Yilmaz G., YILMAZ A. Ö.

IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/twc.2023.3318081
  • Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Detection, Detectors, dithering, Massive MIMO, massive MIMO, Modulation, multi-user, one-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC), pseudo-random quantization (PRQ), Quantization (signal), Signal to noise ratio, stochastic resonance (SR), Uplink, Wireless communication
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Utilizing low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in uplink massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is a practical solution to decrease power consumption. The performance gap between the low and high-resolution systems is small at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. However, at high SNR and with high modulation orders, the achievable rate saturates after a finite SNR value due to the stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon. This paper proposes a novel pseudo-random quantization (PRQ) scheme by modifying the quantization thresholds that can help compensate for the effects of SR and makes communication with high-order modulation schemes such as 1024-QAM in one-bit quantized uplink massive MIMO systems possible. Moreover, modified linear detectors for non-zero threshold quantization are derived, and a two-stage uplink detector for single-carrier (SC) multi-user systems is proposed. The first stage is an iterative method called Boxed Newton Detector (BND) that utilizes Newton’s Method to maximize the log-likelihood with box constraints. The second stage, Nearest Codeword Detector (NCD), exploits the first stage solution and creates a small set of most likely candidates based on sign constraints to increase detection performance. The proposed two-stage method with PRQ outperforms the state-of-the-art detectors from the literature with comparable complexity while supporting high-order modulation schemes.