There exist no materials and/or structures of technical importance without residual stresses. The residual stress management concept has gained importance in industrial applications aiming to improve service performance and useful life of the product. Thus, the industry requests rapid, reliable, and nondestructive methods to determine residual stress state. The aim of this article is to investigate the applicability of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) method to measurement of surface residual stresses in the carburized steels. To comprehend the differences in the surface residual stress state, 19CrNi5H steel samples were carburized at 900 degrees C for 8 and 13 hours, and then, tempered in the range of 180 degrees C and 600 degrees C. The MBN measurement results were correlated with those obtained by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Microstructural investigations and hardness measurements were also conducted. For this particular study, it was concluded that both techniques give similar qualitative results for monitoring of the residual stress variations in the carburized and tempered steels. Since the MBN method is much faster than the XRD method, from the industrial point of view it is a very strong candidate for qualitative monitoring of residual stress variations. With an appropriate pre-calibration by considering the effect of microstructure, the MBN method may give reliable quantitative results for residual stress.