A Mathematical Model for Simulation of Flow Rate and Chamber Pressures in Spool Valves

Afatsun A. C. , BALKAN R. T.

JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, vol.141, no.2, 2019 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 141 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1115/1.4041300
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus


In this paper, a mathematical model to simulate the pressure and flow rate characteristics of a spool valve is derived. To improve the simulation accuracy, the discharge coefficient through the spool valve ports is assumed to be a function of both the Reynolds number and the orifice geometry rather than treating it as a constant. Parameters of the model are determined using the data obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses conducted on two-dimensional axisymmetric domains using ANSYS FLUENT 15 (R) commercial software. For turbulence modeling, shear stress transport (SST) k-omega model is preferred after a comparison of performance with the other available turbulence model options. The resulting model provides consistent pressure and flow rate estimations with CFD analyses and a smooth transition between different geometrical conditions. The ultimate aim of this study is to fulfill the need for a model to precisely determine the geometrical tolerances of spool valve components for optimum performance. Estimations of the developed model is compared with the experimental data of a spool valve, and the model is proved to be able to accurately estimate the maximum leakage flow rate, the pressure sensitivity, and the shapes of leakage flow/load pressure curves.