Origin and source regions of PM10 in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere

KOÇAK M. , Mihalopoulos N., Kubilay N.

ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, vol.92, no.4, pp.464-474, 2009 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 92 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.01.005
  • Title of Journal : ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH
  • Page Numbers: pp.464-474


A set of daily PM10 (n=281) samples collected from April 2001 to April 2002 at a rural site (Erdemli), located on the coast of the Eastern Mediterranean, were analyzed applying Mass Closure (MC), absolute principal factor analysis (APFA) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to determine source contributions. The results from the three techniques were compared to identify the similarities and differences in the sources and source contributions. Source apportionment analysis indicated that PM10 were mainly originated from natural sources (sea salt +crustal approximate to 60%) whilst secondary aerosols and residual oil burning accounted for approximately 20% and 10% of the total PM10 mass, respectively. Calculations for sulfate showed that on average 8% and 12% of its total concentration were originated from sea salt and biogenic emissions, respectively. However, the contribution by biogenic emissions may reach up to a maximum of similar to 40% in the summer Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis for identification of source regions showed that the Saharan desert was the main source area for crustal components. For secondary aerosol components the analysis revealed one source region, (i.e. the south-Eastern Black Sea), whereas for residual oil, Western Europe and the western Balkans areas were found to be the main Source regions. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.