Fully Integrated Autonomous Interface With Maximum Power Point Tracking for Energy Harvesting TEGs With High Power Capacity

Tabrizi H. O. , Jayaweera H. M. P. C. , Muhtaroglu A.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, vol.35, no.5, pp.4905-4914, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/tpel.2019.2945913
  • Page Numbers: pp.4905-4914
  • Keywords: Charge pumps, DC-DC power converters, Oscillators, Maximum power point trackers, Mathematical model, Integrated circuit modeling, Capacitors, Integrated < named-content xmlns:xlink="http:, www, w3, org, 1999, xlink" xmlns:ali="http:, www, niso, org, schemas, ali, 1, 0, " xmlns:mml="http:, www, w3, org, 1998, Math, MathML" xmlns:xsi="http:, www, w3, org, 2001, XMLSchema-instance" content-type="math" xlink:type="simple"> < inline-formula > < tex-math notation="LaTeX">$LC$<, tex-math > <, inline-formula > <, named-content >-tank oscillator, low-voltage dc, dc conversion, maximum power point tracking (MPPT), self-powered charge-pump, thermoelectric energy harvesting, wearable sensors, CHARGE-PUMP, OSCILLATOR, CONVERTER, STARTUP, MV


In this article, a novel fully autonomous and integrated power management interface circuit is introduced for energy harvesting using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply power to Internet of Thing nodes. The circuit consists of a self-starting dc & x2013;dc converter based on a dual-phase charge pump with LC-tank oscillator, a digital MPPT unit, and a 1-V LDO regulator. The novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm avoids open-circuit state, and accommodates varying input power and ultra-low voltage conditions. Validation data from the fabricated test-chip in 180 & x00A0;nm standard CMOS technology indicates the circuit start-up voltage is as low as 170 mV. The maximum output power capacity is 0.5 mW, which is the highest noted in the literature for a fully integrated solution. The high output power at low cost is achieved with a peak system efficiency of 30 & x0025;. The relatively low efficiency is expected, since the focus of the design is high power capacity at low cost. The MPPT algorithm reaches 98 & x0025; maximum accuracy for a source output resistance of 40 & x2126;, which is typical for wearable TEG modules.