Species composition, community structure and spatial distribution of net phytoplankton in the southern Black Sea have been studied. In the fraction over 55 mum, diatoms were found to be predominant in cell abundance and followed by dinoflagellates. Net phytoplankters were found to be more abundant in the southwestern sector, especially near the Bosporus and near Sakarya River mouth. MDS (Multi-Dimensional Scaling) analysis has projected four distinct patches along the coast, two of which appear to occupy smaller regions compared to the main western and eastern patches which have lower species numbers and diversity. The diatom species Pseudo-nitzschia seriata and Cerataulina pelagica and the dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Scrippsiella trochoidea dominate the west, while diatom species Synedra acus and Asterionella formosa together with Microspora sp. and Ankistrodesmus falcatus from chlorophyceae dominate the east.