Earthquake-induced liquefaction around marine structures

Sumer B. M., Ansal A., Cetin K. O., Damgaard J., Gunbak A. R., Hansen N. O., ...More

JOURNAL OF WATERWAY PORT COASTAL AND OCEAN ENGINEERING, vol.133, no.1, pp.55-82, 2007 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 133 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.1061/(asce)0733-950x(2007)133:1(55)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.55-82
  • Keywords: coastal structures, earthquakes, guidelines, liquefaction, offshore structures, seismic effects, MODEL, TSUNAMI, WAVES, PREDICTION, RESISTANCE, AMPLITUDE, MARMARA, FLOW, SEA
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This paper gives a state-of-the-art review of seismic-induced liquefaction with special reference to marine structures. The paper is organized in seven sections: (1) introduction; (2) seismic-induced liquefaction in which a general account of soil liquefaction is presented; (3) existing codes/guidelines regarding seismic-induced liquefaction and its implications for marine structures; (4) review of the Japanese experience, giving a brief history of earthquakes and design codes, describing the current design code/standard for port and harbor facilities including counter measures and remediation; (5) review of the liquefaction damage inflicted on marine structures in the 1999 Turkey Kocaeli Earthquake, including recommendations which draw on the lessons learned; (6) assessment of postliquefaction ground deformation (more specifically of lateral ground spreading); and (7) tsunamis and their impact. The present paper and the existing guidelines (CEN, ASCE, and PIANC) form a complementary source of information on earthquake-induced liquefaction with special reference to its impact on marine structures.