Sport for children and adolescents must consider growth and maturation to ensure suitable training and competition, and anthropometric variables could be used as bio-banding strategies in youth sport. This investigation aimed to analyze the association between chronological age, biological maturation, and anthropometric characteristics to explain the physical performance of young judo athletes. Sixty-seven judokas (11.0–14.7 years) were assessed for anthropometric and physical performance. Predicted adult stature was used as a somatic maturation indicator. A Pearson’s bivariate correlation was performed to define which anthropometric variables were associated with each physical test. A multiple linear hierarchical regression was conducted to verify the effects of age, maturity, and anthropometry on physical performance. The regression models were built with age, predicted adult stature, and the three most significantly correlated anthropometric variables for each physical test. Older judokas performed better in most of the physical tests. However, maturation attenuated the age effect in most variables and significantly affected upper body and handgrip strength. Anthropometric variables attenuated age and maturity and those associated with body composition significantly affected the performance in most tests, suggesting a potential as bio-banding strategies. Future studies should investigate the role of anthropometric variables on the maturity effect in young judokas.