SgWalk: Location Recommendation by User Subgraph-Based Graph Embedding

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Canturk D., KARAGÖZ P.

IEEE ACCESS, vol.9, pp.134858-134873, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/access.2021.3116226
  • Journal Name: IEEE ACCESS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.134858-134873
  • Keywords: Social networking (online), Task analysis, History, Heterogeneous networks, Trajectory, Periodic structures, Matrix decomposition, Location-based social networks, location recommendation, heterogeneous graph embedding, information fusion, trust-aware recommendation


Popularity of Location-based Social Networks (LBSNs) provides an opportunity to collect massive multi-modal datasets that contain geographical information, as well as time and social interactions. Such data is a useful resource for generating personalized location recommendations. Such heterogeneous data can be further extended with notions of trust between users, the popularity of locations, and the expertise of users. Recently the use of Heterogeneous Information Network (HIN) models and graph neural architectures have proven successful for recommendation problems. One limitation of such a solution is capturing the contextual relationships between the nodes in the heterogeneous network. In location recommendation, spatial context is a frequently used consideration such that users prefer to get recommendations within their spatial vicinity. To solve this challenging problem, we propose a novel Heterogeneous Information Network (HIN) embedding technique, SgWalk, which explores the proximity between users and locations and generates location recommendations via subgraph-based node embedding. SgWalk follows four steps: building users subgraphs according to location context, generating random walk sequences over user subgraphs, learning embeddings of nodes in LBSN graph, and generating location recommendations using vector representation of the nodes. SgWalk is differentiated from existing techniques relying on meta-path or bi-partite graphs by means of utilizing the contextual user subgraph. In this way, it is aimed to capture contextual relationships among heterogeneous nodes more effectively. The recommendation accuracy of SgWalk is analyzed through extensive experiments conducted on benchmark datasets in terms of top-n location recommendations. The accuracy evaluation results indicate minimum 23% (@5 recommendation) average improvement in accuracy compared to baseline techniques and the state-of-the-art heterogeneous graph embedding techniques in the literature.