SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY, vol.41, no.7, pp.1133-1140, 2013 (SSCI)
My purpose in this study was to examine the effect of verbal and visual feedback on an anticipation-timing task during a series of acquisition and retention trials. Participants were 48 high school students who were randomly assigned to visual-visual, visual-verbal, verbal-visual, and verbal-verbal conditions. I used a Bassin Anticipation Timer to measure coincidence-anticipation timing. Absolute error and variable error were calculated for 4 blocks of 10 trials in the acquisition phases, and 2 blocks of 10 trials in the retention phase to analyze the students' performances by repeated measures using ANOVA. The results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference among the groups in their performance of the task. Thus, it appears that, for facilitating anticipation timing, whether the feedback is visual or verbal may make no difference to learning or acquiring this skill.