Being the predominant cause of disability, neurological diseases have received much attention from the global health community. Over a billion people suffer from one of the following neurological disorders: dementia, epilepsy, stroke, migraine, meningitis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, prion disease, or brain tumors. The diagnosis and treatment options are limited for many of these diseases. Aptamers, being small and non-immunogenic nucleic acid molecules that are easy to chemically modify, offer potential diagnostic and theragnostic applications to meet these needs. This review covers pioneering studies in applying aptamers, which shows promise for future diagnostics and treatments of neurological disorders that pose increasingly dire worldwide health challenges.