Experimental and numerical investigation of mining assisted heavy oil production for the Bati Raman field, Turkey

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Canbolat S., Öztürk H., Akin S.

GEOENERGY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, vol.223, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 223
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.geoen.2023.211497
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: MAHOP, SAGD, Heavy oil, Bati Raman field, Wettability alteration, STEAM INJECTION, WETTABILITY ALTERATION, RECOVERY, TEMPERATURE
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This research aims to investigate possible ultimate recovery from the largest oil reserve (Bati Raman) in Turkey using a new method called mining-assisted heavy oil production (MAHOP) where declines (tunnels) are excavated from the surface to the reservoir. A series of excavations (galleries) continue along the bottom of the reservoir and proceed along the reservoir's bottom. Fan-shaped steam injection holes that are drilled in the reservoir from the top and sides of the galleries are then used to inject steam similar to conventional steamassisted gravity drainage (SAGD). A scaled experimental model and a numerical model have been designed and developed to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method. MAHOP experiments conducted at different wettability conditions showed that ultimate oil recovery varies between 49.56% and 71.73%. These promising results are then verified using a numerical model. It is argued that the temperature increase may alter the wettability of oil-wet rock to more water-wet, which contributes to incremental oil recovery. The conceptual economic study of the MAHOP recovery results show that the process can be economical in terms of both initial investment and operating costs. Thus, MAHOP is strongly recommended for the exploitation of the Bati Raman field.