Turkey's land area is 752 million square km. Of this land area 36% is cultivated and 6% is irrigated. 30% is covered with shrubs and forests. Major agricultural production is composed of (in million Ha): cereals (13.7), industrial plants (cotton, sugar beet, sunflower, tobacco) (2.65), legumes (1.6) and others (mainly vegetables and fruit trees). In Turkey, plant biotechnology research is conducted mainly by the universities and also by governmental agricultural research institutes. Total number of universities and research institutes is 75 and 23, respectively. Total number of units (faculties and research units) and researchers engaged in research on biotechnology related topics is around 180 and 2,000, respectively. Among these units and researchers approximately 35% and 30% is focused on plant biotechnology. Among 50 biotechnology related commercial companies, only 2 is related with plant biotechnology issues. There are also 3 commercial micro propagation units. Total number of biotechnology related articles published between 1995 and 2002 is 1100. 11% (123) of those are related with plant biotechnology. Stress tolerance (21%), tissue culture (19%) and molecular markers (14%) constitute the most intensively-studied plant biotechnology related topics. In this presentation, an extended summary of plant biotechnology research in Turkey together with examples of the most active research units will be covered.