The associations among self-silencing, ambivalent sexism, and perceived devaluation of women in Turkey


AKARSU A. S. , SAKALLI N.

Current Psychology, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12144-021-02353-8
  • Journal Name: Current Psychology
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, IBZ Online, BIOSIS, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Psycinfo
  • Keywords: Self-silencing, Ambivalent sexism, Devaluation of women, Gender, Turkish sample, BENEVOLENT SEXISM, INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES, GENDER STEREOTYPES, PREJUDICE, DEPRESSION, INVENTORY, RESPONSES, DISTRESS, HOSTILE, CONTEXT

Abstract

© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.The main purpose of this study was to explore the associations among self-silencing, the perceived devaluation of women in the family and the country, and hostile/ benevolent sexism in both women and men samples. To reach the aim, we developed three scales. The self-silencing scale included silencing to (1) sexist personal experiences, (2) observed sexist communications, and (3) discrimination against women. Other scales were the devaluation of women in the family and the devaluation of women in the country. We analyzed 379 participants (248 female & 131 male) with a mean age of 21.98 (SD = 2.82). The results presented that the scales were reliable and valid. Participants, in general, had low scores on self-silencing. Men scored higher on the self-silencing scale than women. For women, benevolent sexism and devaluation of women in the family positively predicted self-silencing to sexist personal experiences. Hostile sexism and the devaluation of women in the family positively predicted self-silencing to observed sexist communications. Finally, only hostile sexism positively predicted self-silencing to discrimination against women. For men, the devaluation of women in the family positively and the devaluation of the women in the country negatively predicted self-silencing to sexist personal experiences. None of the independent variables predicted self-silencing to observed sexist communications. Finally, hostile sexism positively and the perceived devaluation of women in the country negatively predicted self-silencing to discrimination against women. Results were discussed in light of the literature on sexism and self-silencing.