Increase in complaints of residents about noise problems in traditional timber-framed dwellings in Turkey has necessitated identification of sound transmission problems. The airborne sound transmission characteristics of interior wall components in traditional timber-framed dwellings (Ankara, Turkey) were examined by in-situ acoustical measurements and simulation analyses. The existing wall components under examination were found to have insufficient airborne sound reduction index (Rw) values with respect to specified criteria. Comparison of in-situ and simulated data has shown that inherent construction features, such as using mudbrick infill and wooden lath within the traditional wall frame, contribute to the overall sound insulation performance of original wall components. In case that the dwelling units/spaces are used as meeting rooms, office rooms or hotel rooms, some acoustical improvements in existing wall components are needed and demountable/reversible attachment with minimum interventions are necessary. The performance of several wall configurations suggested in the study was summarized to be guiding particularly for the improvement of airborne sound insulation of traditional timber frame wall sections and their renovations.