The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between task value, goal orientations, and chemistry self-efficacy in predicting 11th grade Turkish students' chemistry achievement. A total of 572 eleventh grade students taking chemistry participated in the study. Data were collected using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, Achievement Goal Questionnaire, Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale, and Chemistry Achievement Test. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that task value was a significant positive predictor of mastery-approach goals, performance-approach goals, and mastery-avoidance goals. Mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals were found to be positive predictors of chemistry self-efficacy for cognitive skills, whereas mastery-avoidance goals negatively predicted chemistry self-efficacy for cognitive skills. Lastly, chemistry self-efficacy for cognitive skills was a significant positive predictor of chemistry achievement. Overall, the findings of the present study extend the existing body of literature on the interplay between task value, goal orientations, and chemistry self-efficacy in predicting chemistry achievement.