Evaluation of Environmental Performance Based on Proximity to Bat Associated Resource Utilization and Emission Values: A Case Study in a Steel-Making Industry


WASTE AND BIOMASS VALORIZATION, vol.7, no.4, pp.975-993, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12649-016-9493-5
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.975-993
  • Keywords: Best available techniques, Iron and steel, Environmental performance, Industrial emissions directive, BLAST-FURNACE
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Best available techniques reference documents (BREFs) that are drawn up as required by the European Union Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) describe best available techniques (BAT) as the most effective, advanced and applicable methods, preventing emissions to the environment and providing efficient use of resources. Iron and steel industry, which causes quite significant amount of resource depletion and waste production, is one of the industries within the scope of IED. In this study; environmental performance of an integrated iron and steel plant in Turkey was evaluated by comparing its resource utilization and emission levels with the BAT associated values. To this end, a comprehensive material flow analysis was conducted, all inputs (energy, raw material, water) and outputs (products, by-products, emissions) involved in all sub-processes in the facility were determined and specific emissions and resource consumptions were calculated. In general, the studied plant' performance against BAT associated resource utilization and emission values was within the span defined in the BREF. Concerning specific water use and the emission load to the receiving waters, the plant's performance was pretty good. However, the plant was found to be in need of making additional efforts to reduce its dust emission load and specific energy consumption to achieve the BAT associated values. A total of 74 candidate BAT alternatives were identified and evaluated considering their adaptability to local conditions with regard to environmental benefits and technical practicability and economic feasibility. Among them, 36 alternatives were determined to be applicable BAT options for this plant to improve environmental performance and to reach BAT associated resource utilization and emission values.