Causality in 3D massive gravity theories

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Edelstein J. D. , Giribet G., Gomez C., Kilicarslan E., Leoni M., TEKİN B.

PHYSICAL REVIEW D, vol.95, no.10, 2017 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 95 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1103/physrevd.95.104016
  • Journal Name: PHYSICAL REVIEW D
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus


We study the constraints coming from the local causality requirement in various 2 + 1 dimensional dynamical theories of gravity. In topologically massive gravity, with a single parity noninvariant massive degree of freedom, and in new massive gravity, with two massive spin-2 degrees of freedom, causality and unitarity are compatible with each other and both require the Newton's constant to be negative. In their extensions, such as the Born-Infeld gravity and the minimal massive gravity the situation is similar and quite different from their higher dimensional counterparts, such as quadratic (e.g., Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet) or cubic theories, where causality and unitarity are in conflict. We study the problem both in asymptotically flat and asymptotically anti-de Sitter spaces.