The study examines consumer responses to SMS-based mobile advertising campaigns using a field experiment with actual behavioral responses. Specifically, the effects of message characteristics (i.e., incentives and prior permission) and individual differences of message recipients (i.e., content involvement, prior experience with the mobile medium, and medium-fit perceptions) on the attitudinal and behavioral outcomes of such campaigns are investigated. Perceived intrusiveness of the message and attitude toward the campaign are conceptualized as key attitudinal reactions triggered by a mobile advertising message, which in turn influence the behavioral responses generated by the campaign. Findings suggest that, in comparison to permission and incentive, individual differences are stronger determinants of responses to mobile advertising campaigns. Additionally, intriguing insights with respect to the effectiveness of different types of incentives are provided. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.