An Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

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Bart W. M., Hokanson B., Can I.

EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES-THEORY & PRACTICE, vol.17, no.2, pp.515-528, 2017 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 17 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.12738/estp.2017.2.0051
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.515-528
  • Keywords: TTCT, Creative thinking, Creativity, Factorial structure, Adaption-Innovation theory, MEASUREMENT INVARIANCE, DIVERGENT THINKING, CHILDREN, SCORES
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study investigated the factorial structure of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) Figural Form A with an aim to find out whether the two-factor structure of creative thinking established by Kim and Kim, Cramond, and Bandalos holds true for the older participants. Data were gathered from 996 8th grade students and 748 11th grade students from a suburban public school system in Minnesota. Based on previous research and Kirton's Adaption-Innovation (KAI) theory, one and two-factor models were tested in the study. Upon checking the related assumptions, confirmatory factor analyses with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation were conducted using LISREL 8.71. The results indicated that a two-factor model established by Kim and her colleagues was a better fit than a one-factor model. This shows that fluency and originality load onto the latent variable termed the innovative factor, elaboration and abstractness of titles load onto the latent variable termed the adaptive factor, and resistance to premature closure loads on both latent variables. Our results suggest that any efforts to assess and promote creativity should take into consideration the two domains of creativity posited in KAI theory.