Salvia macrochlamys Boiss. & Kotschy, which belongs to sect. Salvia Hedge, is a perennial herb usually growing on rocky limestone slopes in eastern Anatolia. In this study, the anatomical features of the root, the stem, the leaf and the petiole, as well as micromorphological characteristics of the pollen and the nutlet of this species have been investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Moreover, its emended and expanded description, phenology, current distribution and ecology are also given. Anatomical characters such as the number of ray lines in the root, the distance between vascular bundles in the stem, the structure of mesophyll in the leaf and the structure of vascular bundles in the petiole have been found to have taxonomic value. The pollen grains are hexacolpate, radially symmetrical, isopolar and oblate-spheroidal. Their exine sculpturing is bireticulate and perforate. The nutlets are rounded-trigonous in transverse sections, broadly ovate to rotund in shape, light brown, glabrous and slightly rough to protuberances. This species often grows in habitats in which the main soil type is sandy-clayish with low organic content (1.32 +/- 1.06%) and slightly alkaline (pH 7.75 +/- 0.25). The amount of CaCO(3) is 0.94% to 34.91%. The contents of P and K are 8.68 +/- 0.96 and 110.12 +/- 4.86 ppm, respectively.