Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol.104, no.3, pp.386-392, 2020 (SCI-Expanded)
Article / Article
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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ARG, HWW, Antibiotic resistance genes, Hospital wastewaters, ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE GENES, CTX-M, BETA-LACTAMASES, STREPTOGRAMIN-B, DISSEMINATION, STEWARDSHIP, SULFONAMIDE, INFECTIONS, PREVALENCE, MECHANISMS
Middle East Technical University Affiliated:
Hospital wastewaters (HWWs) are reported to be hotspots for antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, limited information involves the impact of these effluents on dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, therefore, seasonally collected HWWs were monitored for overall bacterial load and seven ARGs aadA, tetA, cmlA, sul1, qnrS, ermB and bla CTX-M by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Overall bacterial 16S rRNA copy number was found to be the lowest in winter with 103 copy number/mL, while the highest copy number, with 105 copy number/mL, was observed in both summer and spring. All hospitals tested displayed similar seasonal ARG copy number profile of aadA > tetA > cmlA ≈ sul1 > ermB ≈ qnrS > bla CTX-M. The results indicated that untreated HWWs were hotspots for ARGs and required attention before discharging into public sewer.