The plasmid stability of three wild type Lactococcus lactis strains and their mutants was investigated at different incubation time and temperatures in two different media [M17 broth and reconstituted skim milk (RSM)]. The results showed that both incubation times and temperature are effective on plasmid loss. The plasmid profiles of wild type strains exhibited 8 to 9 distinct plasmid species with molecular weights from 2.1 to 24.0 kb. Lactose fermentation ability was found to be encoded by 22.2 (strain U70), 23.6 (strain U29) and 24.0 (strain U52) kb plasmids in the wild type strains, respectively. The stabilities of the plasmids were explained by applying a second-order polynomial modeling system. Reasonable fittings were obtained for the model and the adjusted regression coefficients (R-adj(2)) were between 0.76 and 0.99 for the overall data. Overall, it was found that incubation time had the most profound effect on plasmid stability, with plasmid loss occurring after 72 h, while temperatures in the range of 15-40 degrees C also induced plasmid instability.