SAGE Research Methods Cases

Lajunen T., Gaygisiz Lajunen E., Gaygisiz Ü.

Sage, London/New Delhi , London, 2021

  • Publication Type: Book / Research Book
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Publisher: Sage, London/New Delhi 
  • City: London
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Antimicrobial resistance has rapidly increased and has become a major threat to global public health. Antimicrobial resistance is caused by the misuse of antibiotics. The cultural comparisons show that even within Europe, there are vast differences in the consumption of antibiotics in the community. In this study, we investigated the relationship between socioeconomic factors, cultural values, national psychological characteristics, and antibiotic use in a sample of European countries. The data were analyzed by using bootstrap bias-corrected correlations, and three regression models were tested. The highest amount of variance in antibiotic use was accounted for by the cultural values (65%) followed by socioeconomic factors (63%) and personality factors (55%). Results show that socioeconomic factors, cultural values, and national personality characteristics explain cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe. Antibiotic use as health behavior is a result of complex psycho-social mechanisms and, therefore, a multidisciplinary approach in research is needed. The study also shows that cross-country comparisons using country-level aggregated data provide a promising approach for investigating the national differences in antibiotic use.