This paper presents an empirical study of the effects of ownership and privatization on technical efficiency in the Turkish cement industry. We first summarize the characteristics of the Turkish cement industry and changes in industrial structure in the post-privatization period. The effects of ownership and privatization on technical efficiency are estimated using the stochastic production frontier approach. The empirical tests presented, which use data on all cement plants in Turkey, suggest that neither ownership nor privatization had a significant impact on technical efficiency. © 2001 CIRIEC.