Water resources are mainly controlled by the climate conditions. Global warming will therefore have evolving impacts on water resources and poses important challenges for sustainable development. Studies are rapidly emerging with focus on potential implications of climate change on Turkish water resources. These studies can be grouped into two major fields: (1) Studies investigating the degree of climate change reflected in the past observed hydro-meteorological records, and (2) studies investigating potential future impacts of climate change on water resources. In this paper, we present a summary of the current knowledge in the area of climate change impacts on Turkish water resources with emphasis on the two major fields listed above. Overall conclusion of the review is that climate change will put additional pressure on already stressed water resources in Turkey. The credibility of water management scenarios - whether focused on maintaining ecosystems or on food and energy security - largely depends on improved consideration of plausible climate change scenarios, and their potential uncertainties, in decision making.