A multivariate investigation of the differences in mathematics anxiety

Baloglu M., Kocak R.

PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, vol.40, no.7, pp.1325-1335, 2006 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.10.009
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1325-1335
  • Keywords: mathematics anxiety, multivariate differences, college students, COLLEGE-WOMEN, RATING-SCALE, MARS, ATTITUDES, STUDENTS
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: No


Anxiety has been found to be one of the most prevalent emotional problems associated with mathematics. Researchers have clustered variables that affect mathematics anxiety around three main sources: Situational, dispositional, and environmental. In the present study, two of the environmental sources (i.e., gender and age) were studied, after taking into account mathematics experience. The participants were 759 college students who responded to the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Scale (RMARS) and a set of demographic questions. The results showed multivariate differences between men and women and among three age groups, after adjusting for the differences in previous mathematics experiences. Female students showed significantly higher mathematics test anxiety, whereas male students were significantly higher in numerical task anxiety. In addition, older students were found to experience higher mathematics test and course anxiety but were lower in numerical task anxiety. It was concluded that gender and age differences should be investigated in the studies of mathematics anxiety and that the multidimensionality of this construct should be carefully taken into account. Suggestions for mathematics teachers were made based on the results. (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.