Hydroxyapatite (HA) co-doped with Zn2+ and F ions was synthesized by precipitation method for the first time in this study. FTIR spectroscopy revealed Zn2+ and F ions incorporation into HA structure. Co-doping of Zn2+ and F ions decreased unit cell volume of HA and decreased grain sizes. Zn2+ or 5 mol% F- addition into HA significantly Unproved its density. Microhardness was increased with Zn2+ addition and further increase was detected with F- co-doping. Zn2+ and F- co-doped samples had higher fracture toughness than pure HA. Zn2+ incorporation to the structure resulted in an increase in cell proliferation and ALP activity of cells, and further increase was observed with 1 mol% F- addition. With superior mechanical properties and biological response 2Zn1F is a good candidate for biomedical applications. (C) 2014 Chinese Materials Research Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.