© 2022 Elsevier B.V.Bi12SiO20 single crystals grown by Czochralski method were optically investigated in detail in the present paper. Transmission and reflection measurements were performed at room temperature in the 400–800 nm spectral range on the (111) plane. Linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of the Bi12SiO20 crystal were determined analyzing the transmission and reflection spectra. The spectral dependencies of absorption coefficient, skin depth, refractive index, optical and electrical conductivities, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function were plotted. Analyses of optical parameters presented the direct band gap and Urbach energies as 2.55 and 0.33 eV, respectively. Static refractive index and dielectric constant, oscillator strength, dispersion and single oscillator energies, nonlinear refractive index, first- and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities were revealed. Structural properties of the Bi12SiO20 crystal were investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements.