Phytogeography, ecology and conservation of the genus Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) in Turkey and a taxonomic revision


PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION, vol.306, no.6, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 306 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00606-020-01706-3
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts
  • Keywords: Conservation, Ecology, Limonium, Phytogeography, Plumbaginaceae, Synopsis, POLLEN MORPHOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, PHYLOGENETICS, MYRIOLEPIS, SEQUENCES, ISLAND
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This article examines the distribution, ecology, and threat categories of the genus Limonium, (Plumbaginaceae) in Turkey. The specimens of Limonium used in this study were either collected during the field excursions carried out in the country over the last 10 years or otherwise stored at various herbaria. Most of the species are locally distributed endemics confined to saline habitats either on the coastal ecosystems of the Mediterranean region or inland salt lakes. They are threatened by excessive grazing, habitat alterations and global warming. A concise taxonomic revision of Limonium in Turkey, covering 27 taxa (25 species and two varieties), is also presented including keys to the species and varieties. So far, three new endemic taxa, Limonium davisii, sp. nov., Limonium lilacinum var. laxiflorum, var. nov., and Limonium globuliferum var. subglobosum, var. nov., are described for the first time. The center of Limonium diversity, according to our survey, lies in the Mediterranean Irano-Turanian region, where 14 endemic taxa (seven of them known from one locality), seven non-endemic rare taxa and six widely distributed taxa are found. We propose that threat categories for the taxa at global level be as follows: seven Critically Endangered (CR), three Endangered (EN), four Vulnerable (VU) and 13 Least Concerned. The threatened species are mainly confined to salty habitats on the coast of Mediterranean or the inland salt lakes.